During the s, Burma was one of the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China as a nation. However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards FRC in a tiered citizenship system adopted by the post-independence government. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan ;  those who managed to stay prospered.
In the s, discriminatory policies against overseas Chinese encompassed citizenship, government employment, approval for business regulations and licensing, loan extensions and permission to make remittances. In February , the Enterprise Nationalization Law was passed, effectively nationalizing all major industries and prohibiting the formation of new factories. This law adversely affected many industrialists and entrepreneurs, especially those without the full citizenship. Although a kabya himself, Ne Win banned Chinese-language education and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave.
Ne Win's government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China in Beginning in and continuing throughout the s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation , scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice.
The Citizenship Law further restricted Burmese citizenship for Burmese Chinese as it stratified citizenship into three categories: full, associate, and naturalized and severely limited Burmese Chinese, especially those without full citizenship and those holding FRCs, from attending professional tertiary schools, including medical, engineering, agricultural and economics institutions.
In , the State Law and Order Restoration Council SLORC came to power, and gradually loosened the government's role in the economy, encouraging private sector growth and foreign investment. This liberalization of state's role in the economy, if slight and uneven, nonetheless gave the ethnic Chinese-led businesses extra space to expand and reassert their economic power.
Today, the majority of retail, wholesale and import trade businesses are run by the Burmese Chinese today. Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of Yangon , Mandalay , Taunggyi , Bago , and their surrounding areas.
Focusing on the consequences of migration, and cultural contact between the various ethnic groups, this book describes and analyses the nature of ethnic identity and state of ethnic relations, both historically and in the present day, in multi-ethnic, pluralistic nation states in Southeast Asia. Since that, she not only learned to speak Zhuang a local dialect after marriage, but also Cantonese and Mandarin in business. Search for Archives. Later, she chose to improve her Vietnamese writing by going to study in Vietnam. Skip to main content.
The northern region of Burma has seen a recent influx of mainland Chinese migrant workers, black market traders and gamblers. Upper Burma has seen a demographic shift resulting from the recent immigration of many Mainland Chinese to Mandalay Region , Shan ,  and Kachin States.
With the Burmese government turning a blind eye, many Chinese immigrants from Yunnan and also from Sichuan poured into Upper Burma in the s, settling in Mandalay. Chinese festivals are now firmly embedded in the city's cultural calendar. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Chinese people in Myanmar Wikipedia open wikipedia design.
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Identity and Ethnic Relations in Southeast Asia. Racializing Chineseness. Authors: Tong, Chee-Kiong. Free Preview. Offers a comprehensive and comparative. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Identity and ethnic relations in southeast Asia: Racializing Chineseness | Modern nation states do not constitute closed entities.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Bamboo network and Economy of Burma. Regional cuisines. Overseas cuisine. Religious cuisines. Buddhist Jewish Islamic Taoist.
Ingredients and types of food. Main dishes Desserts Noodles. Preparation and cooking. Stir frying Double steaming Red cooking.
See also. See also: List of Burmese Chinese. China portal. Retrieved Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia. Institute of SoutheastAsian Studies. Brookings Institution Press. July National University of Singapore Press. Asian Firms: History, Institutions and Management. Edward Elgar Publishing. Palgrave Macmillan.
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs. The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Michigan Law Review Association. The Irrawaddy. The National. Retrieved September 12, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. National University of Singapore. Dictionary of Modern Spoken Mon. Oxford University Press. Shan-English Dictionary. Leo Suryadinata ed. Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. Essays Offered to G. Artibus Asiae Publishers.
Dudley January Geographical Review. American Geographical Society. Journal of Burma Studies.
Retrieved 3 May Praeger published June 1, World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 25 July Japan Times. The Jewish Century. Princeton University Press. Greenwood Publishing Group — via Google Books. Fiery dragons: banks, moneylenders and microfinance in Burma. NIAS Press. Praeger published May 30, National Geographic Press. Customer Reviews.